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ICESP IX CONFERENCE PAPER ABSTRACTS B 1-3 SERIES

Held in Kruger Gate, Mpumalanga, South Africa
May
May 17 - 21, 2004

The International Conference on Electrostatic Precipitation (ICESP) is the official conference of the International Society for Electrostatic Precipitation (ISESP).  

The following is a list of the Abstracts for the B 1-3 Series papers from the IX ICESP Conference.  

B1  Retrofit of SCR-Systems - Formation mechanisms of SO3-aerosols and implications on the Flue Gas Cleaning System
Michael J. Frank and Prof. Dr. Heinz Gutberlet

Abstract
The retrofit of DeNOx-systems has been accomplished in nearly all German power plants during the nineteen-eighties as an implementation of the respective prescriptions of the environmental legislation (13. BImSchV). Since then, many years of experience have been accumulated at E.ON Engineering regarding the operation, the efficiency and the impact on the total flue gas cleaning system. Especially the often-reported opacity problems occurring after the retrofit of DeNOx-systems still remain to be an issue of key-interest.

This paper shall contribute to the general understanding of formation mechanisms of SO3 in its different states, its concentration profiles along the flue gas path and the specific effects related to SO3 or sulphuric acid observed in the individual components of the boiler and flue gas cleaning system. Results obtained in several measuring campaigns in power stations in Germany as well as in the United States are shown and discussed. The dependencies on specific process conditions such as sulphur content of coal, the catalyst type, air heater setpoint temperatures and the general configuration of the plant are discussed.

As sulphuric acid as a conditioning agent has an important effect also on the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators, the relevant test results are specifically reviewed in this respect. 

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B2  Experiences of Wet Type Electrostatic Precipitator Successfully Applied for SO3 Mist Removal in Boilers Using High Sulfur
Hidekatsu Fujishima    and    Chikayuki Nagata
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.

Abstract
In thermal power plants, especially using high sulfur content fuel, much attention is recently paid to SO3 emission, because gaseous SO3 in flue gas is condensed to sulfuric acid mist (SO3 mist) in the wet type FGD, which is installed to meet SO2 emission regulation. SO3 mist is very fine under-sub-micron sized particulate matter (PM), which is very visible even if the concentration is relatively low, and causes air pollution. SO3 is often recognized as a part of the total SOx. However, recently, discussion comes out, especially in the United States, that the condensed SO3 mist should be included in the total dust instead of SOx and regulated together with solid dust. In order to remove SO3 mist from flue gas, wet type electrostatic precipitator (WESP) installed in the horizontal gas flow at downstream of FGD (Flue Gas Desulfurization System) is one of the best solutions and the most proven technology at this moment. This paper describes the experiences of WESP successfully applied in Japan and Europe, and also shows the advantages of the technology. Measuring method of solid dust and SO3 concentration is a very important issue for WESP application, which is discussed in this paper as well.


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B3  Electrostatically augmented granular gas filters: A solution in search of a problem?
Gerrit Kornelius

Abstract
The filtration of liquids and gases through a bed of granular medium developed as an industrial process during the 19th century. Early applications to gas filtration are summarized by Squires and Pfeffer [1] and Tien [2]. The first granular bed gas filters were of the horizontal type, operated in the fluidized bed mode. Non-fluidized, periodically backflushed units were developed during the 1950ís and were widely used, for instance in the cement industry

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