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ICESP VI CONFERENCE PAPER ABSTRACTS PHYSICS SERIES

Held in Budapest, Hungary
June 18-21, 1996

The International Conference on Electrostatic Precipitation (ICESP) is the official conference of the International Society for Electrostatic Precipitation (ISESP).  

The following is a list of the Abstracts for the Physics Series papers from the VI ICESP Conference.  

269 - The Effect of Gravitational Settling in an Electrostatic Precipitator
Zhangfa Wu 1, J. K. Walters 1 and D. W. P. Thomas 2
I Department ofChemical Engineering
2 Department ofElectrical & Electronic Engineering

Abstract
A simple modification to the Deutsch model is presented.  It includes the effects of both electrostatic and gravitational depositions in an electrostatic precipitator, and hence yields a lower penetration than the Deutsch model.  Calculations show that under certain circumstances gravity settling can be significant in an electrostatic precipitator.

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275 - The Spectra of the Corona in an Electrostatic Precipitator
Zhangfa Wu ., J. K. Walters I and D. W. P. Thomas 2
J
Department ofChemical Engineering
2 Department ofElectrical and Electronic Engineering

Abstract
An optical detection system to measure the spectra of the corona in an electrostatic precipitator has been constructed.  The corona light is focused by a lens on to the input slit of a spectrograph.  The output of the spectrograph is detected by a CCD unit connected to a PC for experimental run control and data processing.  Preliminary results have shown that the detection system has allowed the spectra to be measured with a high signal-to-noise ration and resolution.  The ionic species present in the corona and the abundance of the individual ionic species are being identified from the measured spectra.

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281 - Measuring and Modeling Mass Fluxes in ESP
Claus Riehle

Abstract
Describing particle transport in ESPs is usually done in terms of “effective migration velocity”.  Starting from a mass balance, this work shows that weff has to be read as mass flux.  A simple relationship is given for transforming the total mass flux of collected particles into an effective migration velocity and vice versa.  The concept of mass flux is completely based on physical terms which might lead to more insight into the collection process.  In particular this concept can also be applied to describe the local mass fluxes in a precipitator duct.  Generally, the local mass fluxes in real size ESPs can be measured too.  Based on such results, modeling mass fluxes as function of precipitator length should be possible.  This concept allows an improved scale-up, e.g. designing additional collecting zones, when a further reduction of dust emissions is required.

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293 - Studies on Electrostatic Precipitation at Temperatures around Acid Dew point
Takuya YAMAMOTO, Mitsuhiro MIENO,
Kenji SHIBATA, Kazuyoshi TAKAHASHI
Research
& Development Center

bstract
Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP) for coal-fired boilers are generally operated at a temperature above acid dew point.  Recently, an alternative technique has been developed from the view point of high efficiency, in which the ESP is operated below acid dew point temperature.  Because of the formation of sulfuric acid mist, the collecting performance of the ESP is improved.  This formation is mainly due to condensation of sulfuric acid vapor, created by the reaction between H2O and sulfur trioxide (SO3) vapor, in the stack gases.

In this paper we describe an experimental study of the collecting performance of an ESP at temperatures around acid dew point, and the behavior of condensed SO3.  The results may be summarized as follows:

(1) The collecting performance of the ESP is improved by the effect of condensed SO3.

(2) Condensed SO3 exists as sulfuric acid mist on the surface of dust particles.

(3) At a temperature below acid dew point, it is possible to remove SO3 and dust particles from the stack gas with high efficiency.


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299 - Relations between Coal/Fly Ash Properties and Cohesive Forces in Electrostatically Precipitated Ash Layers
L. Canadas, B. Navarrete, L. Salvador
Dept. Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental. E.S.!.!. - Universidad de Sevilla

Abstract
The main results of a research programme directed to the investigation of fly ash cohesiveness and adherence to ESP plates and their relation with coal and ash properties are presented. A total of 58 coal and fly ash samples coming from 6 pc boilers have been extensively characterized by means of standard and non-standard analyses to identify physical, chemical, morphological, mineralogical, and ESP performance related characteristics, like resistivity and dust layer adherence to the collecting plates. A measuring method of cohesive forces on electrostatically precipitated fly ash and a test apparatus have been developed. The ash cohesion under approximate real conditions in industrial ESPs has been measured. Correlations between the cohesive force and the coal/fly ash characteristics have been established, and also the relation with ash resistivity.


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306 - Electrostatically Enhanced Core Separator System
BRUCE H. EASOM, LEO A. SMOLENSKY
LSR TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
RALPH F. ALTMAN
ELECfRlC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE

Abstract
The main results of a research program directed to the investigation of fly ash cohesiveness and adherence to ESP plates and their relation with coal and ash properties are presented.

A total of 58 coal and fly ash samples coming from 6 pc boilers have been extensively characterized by means of standard and non-standard analyses to identify physical, chemical, morphological, mineralogical., and ESP performance related characteristics, like resistivity and dust layer adherence to the collecting plates.  A measuring method of cohesive forces on electrostatically precipitated fly ash and a test apparatus have been developed.  The ash cohesion under approximate real conditions in industrial ESPs has been measured.  Correlations between the cohesive force and the coal/fly ash characteristics have been established, and also the relation with ash resistivity.


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312 - Recent Experience in Controlling Fine Particles in ESP
P. L. Feldman
K S. Kumar
D. 1. Helfritch
Environmental Elements Corporation

Abstract
The future will require much more stringent control of fine particulate emissions.  Conventional particulate collectors such as electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters will be pushed to their limits to meet the new requirements.  The need for the development of novel methods or enhancements for improved fine particulate control will become obvious.  This paper discusses the difficulties in capturing the fine particles and presents several potential means for ultimately accomplishing the goal of high-efficiency fine particulate control.


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325 - Local Deposition of Particles in a Laboratory-Scale Electrostatic Precipitator with Barbed Discharge Electrodes
J. Miller I) H.-J. Schmid 2) E. Schmidt 2) A.J. Schwab I)
1) Institut fiir Elektroenergiesysteme und Hochspannungstechnik
University ofKarlsruhe, Kaiserstr.12, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
2) Institut fur Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik


Abstract
The precipitation of particles in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) results in striking dust patters at the collecting electrodes, strongly depending on forces of the electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) field in the duct.  Due to precipitator geometry, electrical operation status, and process parameters, areas of high and low dust density are visible.  Since latest results show a direct correlation of precipitator efficiency with the shape and size of those patterns, a better knowledge of local dust layer properties is necessary in order of those patterns, a better knowledge of local dust layer properties is necessary in order to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitator, e.g. by electrode optimization.

 For this paper experimental investigations were carried out with a laboratory scale electrostatic precipitator.  In order to analyze the different characteristics of the collected dust at compressed and light dust layer regions, particles size distributions and dust layer porosity were determined with the help of a scanning electron microscope (SEM).  Moreover, high accuracy weight measurements were executed to reveal preferred dust deposition along the collecting electrodes.

Whereas the dust mass varies only insignificantly for short-time particle collection (e.g. 1 minute), the dust mass in high-density regions is much larger after having collected a dust layer for a longer period (e.g. 45 minutes).  This phenomenon is due to permanent dust layer erosion by forces of the gas flow.  Moreover, a totally different structure of the dust layer can be observed directly opposite and between the discharge electrodes.  Porosity investigations underline the observations and prove significantly lower porosity in dust layer areas directly opposite of the coronating barbes.  The different particle size distributions of dust at high and low density regions of the dust layer show that fine particles were preferably deposited in high-density regions.

Since the dust layer patterns strongly depend on design and arrangement of the discharge electrodes, the results show potential for an improvement of the ESP-geometry.  Further, the porosity investigations explain observations of local back corona occurrence at the dust layer.


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335 - Improved Discharge Electrode Design Yields Favorable EHD-Field with Low Dust Layer Erosion in Electrostatic Precipitator
J. Miller I) H.-J. Schmid 2) E. Schmidt 2) A.J. Schwab I)
1) Institut fiir Elektroenergiesysteme und Hochspannungstechnik
University ofKarlsruhe, Kaiserstr.12, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
2) Institut fur Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik

Abstract
The performance of electrostatic precipitators strongly depends on design and geometry parameters of the discharge electrode system.  Since the geometry of the electrode system determines the electric field and corona intensity, design and distance of the coronating electrodes must be carefully adapted to the properties of the dust-laden gas.  Only few results exist on the correlation between geometry parameters and fine dust precipitation efficiency.  In industrial applications type and distance of the coronating electrodes are often chosen heuristically.

This paper presents the results of experimental investigations with a plate-type laboratory-scale ESP.  A special frame construction allowed gradually increasing the distance of the coronating electrodes over a wide range.  Fractional efficiency measurements were conducted for a various geometric and electric settings under constant gas conditions.  Depending on the settings, dust patterns of different size occurred at the collecting electrode, showing areas of high and low density dust.  Video recordings prove that fine dust strongly reentrains from areas of low density dust.  Freeze frames, taken out of the video, visualize the reentraining process of collect4ed dust agglomerates.  The fractional efficiency curves show optimum ESP performance for coronating electrode distances in the range of the half gap width or smaller.  Further, a dust pattern analysis demonstrates that ESP performance can be optimized through geometric and electric settings, which yield small areas of low-density dust at the collecting electrode.

The investigations demonstrate that a suitable design and arrangement of the electrodes results in an EHD field, which makes small areas of low density dust, appear at the collecting electrodes and, therefore, leads to low dust layer erosion.  


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343 - Fractional Efficiency Investigations under Back Corona Conditions Considering the Local Occurrence of Back Corona at the Dust Layer of Electrostatic Precipitators
J. Miller J. Lindner A.J. Schwab
Institut filr Elektroenergiesysteme und Hochspannungstechnik
Universitat Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr.l Z, D-76128 Karlsruhe

Abstract

Abstract
High dust resistivity in combination with a collected dust layer are responsible for the occurrence of back corona, which is the cause for a dramatic decrease in the efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP).  So far, a lot of research has been done in order to understand the theoretical background of this phenomenon.  Also, technical solutions were developed to reduce the adverse effects on the precipitator performance, such as conditioning or pulse power supplies.  However, only few investigations keep attention on the local back corona behavior at the collecting plates, which depends on dust layer thickness and density, on their part strongly influenced by forces of the electrohydro-dynamic (EHD) field.

The present paper deals with observations of local back corona occurrence in a laboratory scale electrostatic precipitator and with the influence of back corona on fractional efficiencies under various geometric and electric operation settings.  Upon collection of an appropriate dust layer, back corona was artificially generated by increasing the voltage beyond back corona onset.  The growing intensity and spatial

Expansion of back corona glow-points at the collecting electrode were obtained for slowly increased voltage on a series of impressive pictures.

  These experimental investigations underline the existence of different back corona types as already shown in literature.  Back corona mainly occurred at certain regions of the ESP inlet due to specific conditions of dust layer thickness and porosity.  The majority of back corona flow-points appeared in high porosity areas of the dust layer.  The fractional efficiency measurements under identical conditions confirm earlier investigations with a laboratory scale tubular precipitator, which proved that back corona affects submicron particles much stronger than particles in the 10µm-range.  Further measurements with different distances of the discharge electrodes show higher efficiencies for certain geometric adjustments.  This result is due to the minimization of back corona areas at the collecting electrode.

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353 - Studies of Dust Layer Formation on Electrostatic Precipitator Electrodes
Perevodchikov V.I., Kalinin V.V., Ljamin Y.A.,
Shapenko V.N., Scherbakov A.V.
All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute (VEL)

Abstract
No Abstract Available


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359 - The Study of Agglomeration and Collection Efficiency in Electrostatic Precipitators
A. Zukeran", T. Ito*, T. Takahashi?", K. Shinkai**
* Musashi Institute of Technology
1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya, Tokyo, 158 JAPAN
** Fuji Electric Co.Ltd
1-12-1 Yurakucho, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 100 JAPAN

Abstract
No Abstract Available


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365 - Investigations into the Local Mass Flux of Dust to be Precipitated at the Collecting Electrode
Hans-Joachim SCHMID and Eberhard SCHMIDT
Institut fur Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik
Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany

Abstract
The paper is dealing with the presentations of collecting efficiencies of electrostatic precipitators.  Whereas the total separation efficiency and effective migration rates respectively bear some problems in interpretation and discussion an observation of the flux of locally precipitated dust should lead to more clarity and an improved insight of precipitation because it is only based on physical terms.

The paper presents model calculations accounting for the size-dependent local particle transport.  The local mass flux was calculated for varying median particle size and width of the particle size distribution.  One interesting result is the influence of the classification along the duct, due to the size dependence of the particle migration velocity, on the local mass flux.  It causes an increasing curvature resulting in a higher flux at the entrance of the precipitator, and a higher flux at the outlet for increasing width of the particle size distribution. Furthermore one can show that higher fluid velocities cause a shift of the classification towards the back part of the precipitator.  Furthermore integration over the precipitator length yields the total mass flux and therefore the total separation efficiency may be calculated.  From this quantity effective migration rates weff which according to the model equations of Deutsch and Matts-Öhnfeldt can be recalculated.  The so-called ‘applied Deutsch-equation’ yields a weff which is less sensitive in a certain range.

Preliminary experimental investigations of the local precipitated dust show the influence of an evolving particle concentration profile at the entrance of the duct.


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375 - Investigations on Particle Dynamics in a Plate Type Electrostatic Precipitator Using Double-Pulse Holography
Hans-Joachim SCHMID and Eberhard SCHMIDT
Institut fur Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik
Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany

Abstract
The separation of particles from gases within electrostatic precipitators is mainly depending on the flow conditions.  The flow field is governed by the mutual interaction of the electric field with the gas ions and the turbulent channel flow.  Especially for wire-plate electrostatic precipitators this causes secondary flows, well known as the ‘ionic wind’.  The influence of the ionic wind on the precipitation of particles has been discussed widely in the past.

Double pulse holography was applied to investigate the particle motion within a laboratory scaled plate-type electrostatic precipitator with round wires as discharge electrodes.  This experimental method allows determining size, location and velocity of all particles within a specified volume at one distinct moment.  Subsequently frequency distributions as well as spatial distributions of the particle collective within the precipitation zone are evaluated.

A quantitative analysis of the migration velocities in the near-wall region and a comparison with theoretical migration velocities, leads to the conclusion that the ionic wind has an order of magnitude about some 10 cm/s.


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382 - Experiments on Simultaneous Variation of Plate Spacing and Duct Length
Helmut Wiggers, Amar Lerari, Sun Biao
Universitat GH Essen, Germany

Abstract
No Abstract Available


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388 - Conduction and Charging Phenomena in a Fluidised Bed of Solid Insulating Particles
G. TOUCHARD1~ G. ARTANA1~ s. SAMMARTIN01~ S. WATANABE2
1 - L.E.A. - Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des FluidesU.
R.A. 191 du C.N.R.S. - 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau86022
POITIERS Cedex - FRANCE
2 - AICHI - Institute of Technology - YakusaTOYOTA
470.03 - JAPAN

Abstract
No Abstract Available


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394 - Fact: a Non-Traditional Fly Ash Conditioning Technology
Robert R. Crynack, Ph.D.
Wheelabrator Air Pollution Control

Abstract
No Abstract Available


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400 - Measurement of Discharge Electrode Emission Characteristics in the Laboratory
J A Houlgreave & J C Fothergill
Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, LEI 7RH, UK

Abstract
No Abstract Available


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406 - Particle Flow Field in a Commercial Design ESP during Intermittent Energization
Claes Halldin, Rikard Hakansson, Lars-Erik Johansson and Kjell Porle.
ABB Flakt Industri AB, Vaxjo, Sweden.

Abstract
Spatially and temporally resolved particle velocity has been measured by means of Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry (LDV) in a laboratory ESP of commercial design operating with Intermittent Energization (IE).  Rigid Discharge Electrodes (RDEs) and helical wires were used as Discharge Electrodes (Des) and the Collecting Electrodes (CEs) were of the G-shape type.  The electrode spacing was 300 mm.  The negative high voltage was run in a mode with charging ratios of 1:1 and 1:19.  The average current density was 0.4 mA/m2 for the 1:1 tests and 19 times lower for the 1:19 tests.  Submicron polystyrene particles were added to the air flow at the ESP inlet.

The LDV-measurements consisted of three particle velocity components and the whole flow fields were mapped by traversing in three directions.  The time base of the velocity registrations was synchronized to the high voltage supply pulses, which made it possible to track the time history of the particle velocities.

The results show marked spatial gradients in both mean particle velocity and turbulence level, especially where the corona is located.  Those gradients are steeper for the RDEs than for the helical wires.  The 1:19 tests reveal also the transient behavior of the particle transport in the ESP.

The aerodynamically generated overall (and time averaged) turbulence level is significant compared to the electrically generated turbulence.  This is especially true close to the CEs due to the flow separation at the G-shaped stiffeners.


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417 - FGC as a Means for Cost-Effective ESPs for Low Sulfur Coals
Kjell Porle, ABB Flakt Industri AB, Vaxjo, Sweden
Keith Bradburn, ABB Environmental Systems, Knoxville, Tennessee
Pat Bader, TheChemithon Corporation, Seattle, Washington

Abstract
The fly ash generated from many low sulfur coals results in large Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) in order to achieve acceptable particulate emission levels.  When the fly ash has a high content of Si and Al and a low content of primarily Na and S, back-corona is formed on the collecting plates due to the high resistivity nature of the ash cake.  Flue Gas Conditioning (FGC) is a proven, cost-effective method to lower resistivity.  Then a smaller ESP can achieve the same collecting efficiency and emission as a larger one without FGC.  A proper control of back-corona with modern microprocessors will minimize the sulfur consumption and at the same time avoid overdosing of the conditioning agent.  The economics favor the smaller ESP with FGC over the larger ESP.

This paper discusses the technical, capital and operating cost advantages of the smaller ESP with FGC over the larger ESP.  It also briefly discuss alternative techniques for back-corona prevention.


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427 - Flue Gas SO3 Conditioning for Improvement of Particle Collection in ESP
H. Szwed
St. Bach
University of Mining
and Metallurgy

Abstract
No Abstract Available

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432 - Results of IES Utilities, Burlington Station SO3 Conditioning
Jay Thordsen, Alan Arnold, Robert Wright and Judson H. West Il, PE
IES Utilities, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA and
Wilhelm Environmental Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

Abstract
No Abstract Available


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438 - Impact of Ash Characteristics on Precipitator Performance
Srivats Srinivasachar
ABB Power Plant Laboratories, Windsor, CT, USA,
Kjell Porle and Inga-LiU Samuelsson
ABB Flakt Industri AB, Vaxjo, Sweden
Esko I. Kauppinen, Terttaliisa
M. Lind and Sampo Ylatalo
VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo, Finland

Abstract
For new boilers firing fossil fuels, the emission standard for particulates are often in the 20-50 mg/m3 NTP range.  Future standards are expected to be stricter, most likely below 5 mg/m3 NTP.

An integrated knowledge base of the fuel, boiler operation, the fly ash properties and the precipitation process is needed to properly design an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to achieve a prescribed degree of cleaning.  This paper describes a study with several coals of how the fly ash properties vary for different coals and combustion conditions and the relationship of the ash characteristics to precipitability.

Detailed measurements of the fly ash characteristics from two coals were conducted in a 500 and a 630 MWe field unit.  These data were used to calibrate and validate an ash generation methodology using a drop-tube reactor.  Further tests were carried out for 7 coals in the drop-tube reactor.  Ash characteristics, in the size range smaller than about 5µm, were correlated to migration velocities determined from field data.  Particularly noteworthy, was the positive correlation between the ash surface area and precipitability and the strong dependence of the both the fine (0.5-4 µm) and ultra fine (< 0.5 µm) ash loading on combustion temperature.


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452 - Physical Simulation of the Particle Migration in ESP Part II – Application 
1. Gallimberti
Universita di Padova, Dip. Ingegneria Elettrica
Via Gradenigo, 6Ia
35131 Padova, Italy
A. Gazzani, U. Tromboni
I.R.S. s.r.I.
Corso Spagna, 12
35127 Padova, Italy
E. Lami, F. Mattaehini, G. Trebbi
ENEL S.p.A., Centro Ricerca Tennica
Via A. Pisano, 120
56122 Pisa, Ita!y

Abstract
In order to simulate the operating conditions of electrostatic precipitators and to improve the physical knowledge of internal processes, a new numerical model of ESP has been developed and a series of laboratory tests have been performed.

For purpose of model validation, in this paper some of the simulation results, for different ESP energization voltages and operating conditions are presented and compared with experimental observations.


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460 - The Evolution of Back Corona Conditions in an ESP
N. Klippel, K. Schmidle, H. Burtscher, U. Kogelschatz and S. Stutz
ABB Corporate Research Center, CH-5405 Baden-Dattwil, Switzerland

Abstract
Experiments with fly ash resistivities of 1012 Ωcm and 1015 Ωcm have been performed in a laboratory ESP with plate spacing and electrode shapes similar to commercial units.  Both DC and intermittent energization were applied.  The spatial and temporal evolution of back corona conditions could be observed in detail by a fast current detection at each individual collecting plate.  An increase in filter current at the first plate pair indicated the back corona onset after the start could be observed at the second and third plate pair as a result of the developing high resistivity dust layers.  The corresponding decrease in filter efficiency was monitored and compared for different resistivities and dust layer thicknesses.  The recorded correlation of electrical data and particle measurements permit a deeper insight how back corona evolves and affects ESP performance.


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466 - The Effect of Size and Shape on Electrostatic Particle Charging Processes
P. Grabner, N. Szedenik, L. Pula, I. Berta
Technical University ofBudapest, H-1521 Budapest, Hungary

 

Abstract
No Abstract Available


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